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Time Out Budapest -- 3/2012

T o date, the system of scientific classification of the Hungarian Roma pop- ulation most widely accepted was established by Kamill Erdõs as early as The census of the Gypsies in regarded the extent of vagrancy and settlement as the main ordering principle, and accordingly distinguished wandering Gypsies, Gypsies who dwell in one place for a longer period and permanently settled Gypsies.

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Even though all three of them applied the method of participatory observation, they described wandering Gypsies as people who would not tolerate social obligations are were reluctant to become part of society; they were imaginastudio suisse anti aging of nature, albeit of not too honourable charac- ter.

Their scientific interest was directed by a kind of enlightened absolutism and their aim was to settle wandering Gypsies. Archduke Joseph wanted to settle a group of vagrants on his Alcsút estate, while Antal Herman, as a chief counsellor to the Ministry of the Interior, worked on the preparation and co-ordination of the ministry order.

It appears they had little under- standing of the culture of the vagrants, did not recognise the economic pres- sure behind migration, and imaginastudio suisse anti aging mistrust and suspicion directed towards their environment.

Ethnographical and Cultural Anthropological Research One of the first scientists to provide a description of the three major Roma groups in Hungary was Antal Heiczinger in his study. He laid down a valid description of the tub-making Gypsies, which is still valid. In his Data on the Gypsy Question of the Villages his observations equally take into account language, migration, occupation and livelihood, lifestyle, and the relationship with the village and the peasants.

To date this is the most detailed such classification and we can easily assert that it is this system that has been codified by the fields of science dealing with the Roma. It has pro- vided the conceptual framework for ethnographical and anthropological stud- ies, and has also influenced the basic categories of later sociological studies.

The Gypsies in Hungarian Society

The first group may be subdivided into two, markedly distinct sub-groups: A1 those who speak the so-called Carpathian Gypsy language; A2 those who speak the so-called Romany or Vlach Gypsy language. The second main group consists of those whose mother tongue is not the Gypsy language.

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They may be divided into two categories: B1 those whose mother tongue is Hungarian; B2 those whose mother tongue is Romanian. Today it is almost impossible to distinguish them according to their origins. Members of group B2 also fall into two categories: 1 Imaginastudio suisse anti aging Gypsies e.

Ethnographical and Cultural Anthropological Research Once beyond the difficulties of classification, ethnographical litera- ture was more or less interested in the description of the Roma. In its ap- proach and attitude toward the question, the science of the fifties and the sixties carried on the endeavours of the thirties.

Interest was directed at two main areas. Imaginastudio suisse anti aging the one hand it was traditional trades and crafts that inter- ested researchers, while on the other they turned their attention to phenom- ena of folklore.

The positivist description, museal collection of objects and photographic documentation of traditional or ancient trades and crafts has obviously added a lot to our knowledge of the Roma tub makers were described in detail by Béla Gunda, Margit Békeffy, Tivadar Petercsák and János Bencsik; metallurgy by Ferenc Bakó, Kamill Erdõs, Ferenc Bodgál, Ilona Ladvenicza and Zsuzsa Bódi; but research also covered such other crafts as adobe making, brick burning and basket weaving.

These works, however, restrict themselves to describing a craft or trade and are not embed- ded into the history and actual system of relations of the community as a whole. Therefore, such descriptions document the history of technology much more than real socio-historical processes. At the outset, folkloristic studies were motivated by the desire to doc- ument ancient elements of Hungarian folk culture that had been adapted by, and labor anti aging szemkrém felülvizsgálat still discernible amongst the Roma.

Researchers set out with the presupposition that the Roma have no independent ethnic culture of their own, but, as an archaic community, they have preserved many cul- tural elements that they have adapted from Hungarian dance folklore or folk tales. Research, therefore, did not strive to describe Roma culture itself but attempted to glean information about the archaic system of Hun- garian folk culture.

imaginastudio suisse anti aging

Emphasising the co-existence of Roma and non-Roma to some extent legitimised the notion that the culture of the Roma was solely the result of adapting elements from other cultures. No doubt, we should re- gard folklore as basically dependent on social class or stratum, but we also should not forget about the ethnic knowledge generated during the course of the formulation of group identity.

The study of folklore primarily concen- trated on the collection of folk tales. An alternative approach is represented by the work of Katalin Kovalcsik who, while collecting imaginastudio suisse anti aging, was interested in the given community rather than just the afterlife of a genre. The work of Károly Bari is fundamentally dif- ferent from both trends and strives to reconstruct the once unified folkloric knowledge of the Roma by collecting works of folklore among them.

Saphier Regina: A Sárkány Völgyének Felfedezése

As regards the concrete nature of the descriptions, we have to imaginastudio suisse anti aging the works of Melinda Rézmûves, Gusztáv Balázs and Julianna Kalányosné László, who apply actual field ex- periences to the individual communities, from the writings of György Rostás-Farkas, Ervin Karsai and Pál Farkas who, for the most part, project their own experiences from Vlach Gypsy circles over the entire Roma popu- lation.

It was also these authors who attempted to create a comprehensive eth- nography of the Roma people in a synthetic work of some proportion. The value of their work has lost much due to the lack of references and the roman- tic image they depict. From the point of view of imaginastudio suisse anti aging subject matter it was the first two who had the most definitive effect on later ethnographic research.

While researchers even today often cite Kamill Erdõs, József Vekerdi has become persona non grata among romologists. The first significant summary work on the Roma was the volume pub- lished inentitled Gypsies: Where they Came from, Where they are Going and edited by László Szegõ.

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This book contains texts representing var- ious different approaches including scientific analyses as well as articles in- tended to promote the elevation and integration of the Roma population. All in all, we may conclude that ethnographic and folklore research of the past few decades have been primarily interested in Vlach Gypsies who were re- garded as traditional, and, for the most part, were restricted to the description of archaic phenomena without regarding the community or the group as the start- ing point of study.

Interest in the trends of the present was insignificant.

imaginastudio suisse anti aging

This is 16 I. Ethnographical and Cultural Anthropological Research the reason why the growing number of manuals on Roma and the ethnographic notes of educational supplements usually tend to describe the cultural phenom- ena of archaic or Vlach Gypsies rather than Gypsy culture in general. It is perhaps the works which exhibit a socio-anthropological approach that offer the most detailed description and analyses of the Hungarian Roma groups. Using this imaginastudio suisse anti aging researchers examine the culture of Roma groups as a living culture whose primary function is to organise the commu- nity and life, to maintain the survival of the social group and to ensure liveli- hood.

This culture cannot be described in itself but only in the context of its relationship with majority society. Most significant among anthropological studies is the work of the British Michael Stewart.


Stewart inten- tionally selected a group of Vlach Gypsies because he chose to set out from bliss anti aging agyagmaszk assumption that these groups have preserved much more independent ele- ments in their cultural system or, we could say, tried harder to maintain tradi- tional values and lifestyles. In describing Vlach Gypsies he examined both their relationship with the peasants and other Gypsy groups.

imaginastudio suisse anti aging

Stewart draws the primary distinction between Vlach Gypsies whose lifestyle and philoso- phy is traditional and different from that of society and its codified set of val- ues and the Hungarian Gypsies who try to conform to the value system of society in their lifestyles and outlook.

At this point we have to mention two works on the history of science that could provide readers with further and more detailed information on the subject.

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  • Warsystems— Scrapbook
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  • The Gypsies in Hungarian Society | PDF | Folklore | Sociology
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Even though the statement is rather gen- eral, it highlights the basic problem of the sociological study of the Roma. All such studies have to ask at the very beginning who the people to be re- garded as Gypsies are, and what the basis is for such classification.

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