The railroad system, which has a total track length of about 5, km, is entirely electrified. Mountain aerial cableways total km in length, funiculars 55 km, and cog railways 97 km. Switzerland has 18, km of highways.
As of there were 1, passenger cars, 43, trucks, and 4, buses.
There is navigation on the Rhine from Basel and on the lakes. In the merchant fleet had a total tonnage of Swissair provides service primarily on international routes; the principal airport is at Zürich. About one-fourth of the freight transported consists of transit goods.
Switzerland has approximately km of pipelines. Foreign trade. In imports amounted to Deficits are covered by income from the export of capital, the import of foreign capital, revenues from foreign tourism, customs duties, and services provided to foreigners working in international organizations. In raw materials and semifinished products, including foodstuffs requiring further processing, made up In trade with Europe accounted for The socialist countries accounted for 3.
The monetary unit of Switzerland is the Swiss franc. Foreign tourism. The provision of services to tourists, sportsmen, and patients at health resorts constitutes a special branch of the economy: the tourist industry.
Switzerland has more than 8, hotels and numerous pensions, sanatoriums, automobile service stations, and camping sites. As a source of foreign currency, tourism ranks third, after the export of machine-building products and of chemicals and pharmaceuticals.
InSwitzerland provided services to 5.
The climatic health resorts in the mountains are renowned throughout the world. Moscow, Shveitsariia: Ekonomika i vneshniaia torgovlia. Iudanov, Iu. Mezhdunarodnye monopolii Shveitsarii. Barth, A. Die wirtschaftliche Verflechtung der Schweiz mit dem Ausland. Winterthur, Bickel, W. Die Volkswirtschaft der Schweiz: Entwicklung und Struktur. Aarau-Frankfurt am Main, Früh, J. Geographie der Schweiz, vols. Gallen, Kompass: Informationswerk für die Wirtschaft der Schweiz und Liechtenstein.
Zürich-Gockhausen . Statistisches Jahrbuch der Schweiz yearbook. The post of commander in chief is held by the president. The head of the Military Department, the chief of the General Staff who is aar massif suisse anti aging the commander of the armyand the commander of the air force and antiaircraft force are in direct command.
In the armed forces numbered about 46, men, who are called up under the law on compulsory military service in accordance with the territorial-militia system. Conscripts undergo basic training for a four-month period, after which they are transferred to the reserves. Reservists are called up for annual three-week repetition courses over the next eight years, two-week courses for the following three years, and one-week courses for the following two years.
The army of about 37, men includes an alpine corps, comprising three mountain infantry divisions, and three army corps, each consisting of two infantry divisions and one tank division. In addition, the army is made up of 23 detached frontier brigades, a detached armored regiment, three detached heavy-artillery regiments, two detached engineer regiments, two communications regiments, and other units and subunits concerned with combat security and services.
The air force of about 9, men comprises 24 squadrons, with a total of combat aircraft; two helicopter squadrons; an antiaircraft missile aar massif suisse anti aging, consisting of two antiaircraft missile battalions, with a total of 64 launching installations for Bloodhound surface-to-air missiles; and seven antiaircraft artillery regiments.
Medicine and public health. InSwitzerland had a birth rate of For the period —73 the average life expectancy was Among the principal causes of death are cardiovascular diseases, malignant tumors, accidents, and diseases of the respiratory organs. The administration of health care is decentralized: the federal government, through the Federal Office of Public Health Bun-desamt für Gesundheitswesen of the Interior Department, merely monitors morbidity for example, the incidence of infectious diseases and rheumatismthe training of physicians, and environmental protection; it also directs the campaign against alcoholism and the narcotics trade.
The cantonal health care agencies are directly responsible for such areas as the management of hospitals, the organization of nonhospital care, and the administration of health services in the schools. In there were hospitals, with a total of 72, beds 11 beds per 1, inhabitantsof which more than 43, beds were in state medical institutions.
Nonhospital care is provided, for the most part, by private physicians working with the social insurance agencies, as well as by the polyclinic divisions of certain hospitals.
In there were 10, physicians one physician per inhabitants2, dentists, and about 17, secondary medical personnel.
Doctors are trained at the medical schools of five universities; secondary medical personnel receive their training at 80 schools. Switzerland has climatic health resorts in the mountain cities of St.
Inexpenditures on health care made up 10 percent of the state budget. In there were two new cases of anthrax, 1, of rabies, two of Newcastle disease, three of cattle brucellosis, 18 eucerin q10 ránctalanító arckrém makeupalley bovine and sheep tuberculosis, of acariasis of bees, and 21 of blackleg. Cases of enterotoxemia and braxy of sheep, infectious agalactia of sheep and goats, malignant catarrhal fever of cattle, and myxsomtosis have also been reported.
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Veterinary services are directed by aar massif suisse anti aging Veterinary Administration, subordinate to the Federal Council. The network of veterinary services encompasses all cantons; the country has a unified code of veterinary laws. InSwitzerland had 1, veterinarians, who trained at the veterinary schools of the universities of Zürich and Bern.
Research in veterinary medicine is carried on at the two schools and at other veterinary institutions.
Each canton has its own educational legislation and administration. In all cantons education is aar massif suisse anti aging for children from 6—7 to 15—16 years of age. There are kindergartens for children from 3—4 to 6—7 years of age.
The primary school offers a period of instruction that ranges from seven to nine years and comprises two levels; depending on the canton, primary education lasts four years plus three years, four years plus four years, or four years plus five years. At the first level of instruction all pupils receive the same general-education training. In the senior grades of the primary school, the pupils are given, in addition to a general education, specialized vocational training for entry into vocational-technical schools or trade schools and for work in agriculture.
In the —73 academic year, primary schools had an enrollment of more thanpupils: the various vocational-technical schools had more thanpupils. They may be divided, nevertheless, into two basic categories: general-educational aar massif suisse anti aging specialized.
The secondary schools, like the primary schools, have two levels: junior and intermediate. The junior level is a four-year pregymnasium, which accepts aar massif suisse aar massif suisse anti aging aging who have completed four grades of primary school and have passed entrance exams in their native language German, French, or Italian and mathematics.
The senior level is a four- or five-year Gymnasium, which has three divisions: classical languages, modern languages, and natural sciences and mathematics; upon graduation, the student may enter a technical higher educational institution or the law school or school of economics at a university, provided that the student has passed an additional exam in Latin.
The junior level of a specialized secondary school, which has a two-year course of study, prepares students to work in various branches of the economy. In the —73 academic year,students were enrolled in secondary schools of all types, includingat the junior level and 43, at the senior level.
Higher educational institutions offer courses of instruction that range in length from three to five years in some departments, six years. The system of higher education includes the universities of Basel foundedLausanne foundedGeneva foundedZürich foundedBern foundedNeuchâtel foundedand Fribourg foundedas well as such institutions as the federal institutes of technology in Zürich and Lausanne and the Hochschule for Economics, Business, and Public Administration in St.
In the —75 academic year, approximately 45, students were enrolled in higher educational institutions. N Natural and technical sciences. From the ninth through 11th centuries, the center for the study of natural sciences was the Abbey of St.
Gallen, which was the most important cultural center in Switzerland during the Middle Ages. In the first printing press in the country began operating in the city of Muri. The first universities appeared during the 15th and 16th aar massif suisse anti aging Basel, Lausanne, and Geneva.
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Paracelsus and M. Servetus influenced the development of biology and medicine in Switzerland during the Renaissance, and Anti aging hidratáló rosacea. The development of mathematics and mechanics was largely due to the Huguenots, who emigrated to Switzerland at the end of the 16th century; the Huguenots also fostered the local manufacture of watches and precision instruments.
At the beginning of the 17th century, the Swiss mathematician J. Burgi invented logarithms independently of J. Another Swiss mathematician, P. Guldin, is credited with developing theorems on the volumes and surface areas of bodies of revolution. In botany, J. Bauhin is important for his work published —61 describing 5, plants. His brother G. Bauhin was one of the first to apply binary nomenclature in the systematic classification of plants.
The anatomical works of T. Bonet and J. Wepfer were noteworthy contributions to 17th-century medicine. During the first half of the 18th century, international recognition was accorded to the works of Swiss mathematicians.
The brothers Jakob and Johann Bernoulli laid the foundations for the calculus of variations.
Jakob Bernoulli was also one of the founders of the theory of probability, and he discovered the simplest form of the law of large numbers. Johann Bernoulli, who was made a foreign honorary member of the St. Petersburg Academy of Sciences increated the first systematic textbook of differential and integral calculus.
In algebra, G. Cramer laid the foundations of the theory of determinants.
The work of Swiss mathematicians in other countries, including Russia, facilitated recognition of Swiss mathematical achievements. InJ. Hermann la. German became the first professor of the St.
Petersburg Academy of Sciences. Daniel became a foreign honorary member of the academy in Another Swiss mathematician, L. Euler, gained worldwide recognition through his work at the St. Petersburg Academy; named an adjunct inhe was appointed a professor in and and was a foreign honorary member of the academy from to Also elected as foreign honorary members of the St. Petersburg Academy of Sciences were J. GessnerE.
Develeyand S. Mallet-Favre founded the department of astronomy at the University of Geneva and established an observatory there. He carried out a number of projects in Russia and in became a foreign honorary member of the St.
Horner, who became a foreign corresponding member of the Aar massif suisse anti aging. Petersburg Academy of Sciences in Prévost, and A. The study of the Alps gave rise to a number of branches of science in Switzerland.
As a result of travel and exploration in the mountains, J. Scheuchzer was able to publish descriptions of many types of fossil animals and plants between and Kappeler was the author of several works on general crystallography. The foundations of the study of glacial epochs were laid by J. Agassiz moved to the USA in Thurmann identified the Neocomian stage in the Cretaceous system.
Between andJ. Meyer compiled the first geographic atlas of Switzerland. Biology in the 18th century developed under the influence of the doctrine of preformation. Haller, one of the founders of experimental physiology, was the first to devote detailed research to the phenomena of excitability and sensitivity; Haller became a foreign honorary member of the St.
The science of entomology was furthered aar massif suisse anti aging C. Bonnet, who became a foreign honorary member of the St.