Radio Landscape in — Overview Radio business covers three sectors in Hungary in it is comprised of public, commercial and community non-profit radios. The current media system distinguishes the following legal categories: commercial, public service content provider broadcasting mainly public service programsnon-profit and 77 felháborítóan hatékony anti aging service entities the latter one including only the Hungarian Radio.
Private radios incorporate nearly stations altogether, most of which are commercial channels, while a smaller proportion of them are public service content providers or non-profit organizations, such as e.
Regarding the community radios, which constitute the third sector of the media system, only two community stations broadcast at a relatively high power in Budapest, while the remaining nearly 70 stations operate as micro community radios spread all over the country.
Due to the governmental change, a new system was introduced at the end of The winners of the program provision tenders are granted a 7-year contract, which they can apply for again when it expires. Applicants offering a greater proportion of public service related programs and Hungarian music have an advantage during the evaluation of the tenders.
The bidders often exploit this opportunity; however, later they sometimes fail to or do not intend to fulfill their undertakings. Concerning micro community radios, an application can be submitted for any geographical 77 felháborítóan hatékony anti aging. Provided that there are no objections against the contents of the tender, NHH finds an appropriate frequency free of charge. The Program Provision Fund of ORTT annually issues a tender szép anti aging szerum supporting the radios in various ways: in case of non-profit radios for covering the operating costs including also the license fees or for the purchase of technical equipment, in case of local and regional radios for sponsoring news programs, and, exclusively in case of national radios, for supporting radio plays.
Just like on TV, also in case of the radio the listeners must be 77 felháborítóan hatékony anti aging about the classification of a program before it is started if the age limits is 12 or 16 years in practice such warnings are announced mainly before modern radio plays.
In the followings the history of the evolution of the above radio landscape and its legal environment will be investigated. The analog era With the exception of the secret propaganda stations of World War II and the radios of the uprising inaudio broadcasting was the massive monopoly of the state between and Before this, Telephone Newscast had provided news, theatre and opera performances, as well as various literal programs to its 6 to subscribers.
First the listeners could enjoy one channel, while later, from they could select from 2 stations in return of the obligatory subscription fee. Prior to the German invasion in these programs had been diverse, although they mainly addressed the intellectual layer of the society, comprising also scientific readings, classical music and live radio plays directly from the studio. The most popular programs were, however, the evening broadcasts, when live gipsy music folk-style Hungarian music played by gypsies was transmitted from external places.
The retreating German soldiers destroyed the studios and the transmitter network during the war.
Following a silence of several months, broadcast started again on 1 May In the radio was nationalized, meaning that the communist party and the state took over its control, turning it into one of the deliverers of the communist propaganda.
The regional studios of the Radio started their activities inoperating partly on AM, partly on FM frequencies at different transmit times, sometimes broadcasting in the language of the national minorities. The Hungarian Radio of the s.
This latter one gave more freedom to the critics of the political system, therefore it was also a kind of means for relieving the social stresses. Short wave. In the mean time the Hungarian programs of VOA and BCC which were transmitted several times a day gained also considerable audience, especially the whole-day Hungarian broadcasts of Radio Free Europe on short wave.
The topics of this latter one were not only limited to politics; its cultural, literary and despite of the properties of short wave musical programs were also popular.
The Hungarian transmissions of Radio Free Europe were terminated insince the political needs for it ceased to exist. Western style on the horizon The Western style of music radios appeared in the Hungarian ether in the s.
This was the first live program that provided contemporary dance music together with new information, in a style fundamentally determined by the character of the speaker. A whole-day music channel, i. Danubius was transmitted in the CCIR band, which was still empty that time. However, it was not intended for Hungarian listeners, instead, the target group were the Western as well as Austrian and East German visitors arriving at the tourist destination Lake Balaton. Its staff consisted of well-known Hungarian speaker, who sometimes had moderate German accent .
The idea itself originated from Austria: to circumvent the state monopoly of ORF, an Austrian commercial radio named Antenna Austria broadcasted to Vienna from the Hungarian side of the border untilinducing permanent legal disputes. In spite of being a German language radio, Radio Danubius rapidly gained popularity also among the Hungarian listeners, therefore their programs szarkalábak eltüntetése turned to Hungarian fromand completely Hungarian from The speakers behind the microphone were recruited from the well-known anchormen of the Hungarian Radio, each of them obtaining a specific program time in which they could select the music themselves.
Therefore, this radio did not have a definite music style, it played pop and rock songs which were preferred by its anchormen, with news announced every hour. A second radio featuring a commercial profile and music style appeared in Tóth, introduced several innovations: the speakers mixed the program themselves and they regularly talked on the music, which was faded down automatically during speaking. This effect had not been known before. In addition, the remuneration of 77 felháborítóan hatékony anti aging speakers was dependent on the popularity of their programs among the listeners, introducing a financial incentive for the first time.
Calypso also involved the listeners by allowing them to phone-in live, i. Although its musical selection was very diverse, its informal tone yielded high popularity in its first years resulting considerable financial income for the Hungarian Radio.
However, as specialized commercial radios appeared, it to sunk into oblivion and vanished in .
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Along with the public-owned commercial radios also the first private ones arrived inthe year of the regime change. In honour of the visit of the American President Bush in Hungary, a new radio was launched in Budapest in the FM range with a temporary license wearing the iconic name Radio Bridge, referring to the Hungarian-American relations.
Having obtained its license still inRadio Juventus was also launched in at the Lake Balaton, providing highly diverse music programs and information services. The years after the regime change The monopoly of the state seemed to decline and local entrepreneurs tried to obtain 77 felháborítóan hatékony anti aging licenses.
As this question was not regulated nobody had thought of it before since the monopoly of the state was unquestionablethe government decided in to put a halt on frequency assignments until the Media Act was created: this decision was called frequency moratorium.
Then it was still not known that the Media Act would only born in Due to the moratorium private radios could not be launched, although the existing two ones were allowed to continue their activity.
More to the point, Juventus was given another frequency in Budapest too, under circumstances which have remained unclarified even until the present today. Exploiting this opportunity, Juventus became a highly successful pop radio from king toys svájc anti aging by Metro Media International, USA : in it surpassed Danubius, and by its audience was larger than that of Radio Kossuth.
As a result, Juventus lost half of its audience. Since then they have been extending their coverage area by co-operating with small local radios.
In the name of freedom of speech it broadcasted three times a week political and culture related talk programs in the style of the young that was unusual those times, as well as electronic music appearing at the time.
Its speakers used aliases. Their low-power, sometimes mobilized transmitter was receivable in Budapest, chased by the authorities now and then, although never with full effort in such cases the transmitter was switched off.
As a result of this, the makers of the radio became some kinds of heroes of freedom. The Government Decree No. This way local radios — practically commercial ones — could at last be started also in the country, which had been substituted by cable televisions before.
Radio Tilos then voluntarily terminated its broadcasts to be able to apply for legal frequencies with a clean record, which it finally obtained in This gave publicity for social groups feminists, gypsies, homosexuals, drug addicts, greens, etc.
Later interactive phone-in programs that were technically impossible to implement in the pirate period of Tilos also appeared. Since then these interactive programs have always been characterizing this station up to the present day .
This might be the only Hungarian radio which has never broadcasted advertisements and has always been operated as a small community radio financed by donations from the listeners. Besides Tilos, other pirate radios also appeared in Fiksz, which is available only online today, and Civil.
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Both the management and the staff of these three radios had a totally different approach to community broadcasts. This time further pirate radios were launched as well, operated by young adventurers who could build their own transmitters themselves just for fun, playing music hits mostly for each other, relaying satellite transmissions and sometimes connected in network. Radio Tilos got more attention again at Christmas in when a drunken speaker in a program had an offensive remark on the Christians.
Conservative circles claimed the banning of the radio, but finally, after long-lasting social disputes their only punishment was a day switch off. This case, however, revealed a weak point of the voluntarily operated community radios.
National private radio networks Inthree years after the beginning of local radio broadcasting, the Media Act was born, therefore two national commercial private radios could already start in The reason of launching only two was that the frequency management could not create more national networks due to several causes.
Moving the public radio stations to the CCIR range was also important from the point of the receivers, since the newly retailed radio devices could not tune onto the former Eastern VHF frequencies.
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Thirdly, co-ordination was necessary with the neighboring countries in towns close to 77 felháborítóan hatékony anti aging borders, which was especially difficult with Serbia, leading to even less usable frequencies. The specialists of the authority responsible for frequency management HÍF, later NHH often emphasized — practically from the beginning of frequency assignments — that no further FM frequencies were available, especially in case of Budapest and towns close to the boundaries of Hungary.
In the middle of the s the general remedy for this problem was that more radios shared a frequency between each other, leading to unfeasible circumstances in almost all cases.
Finally, a little later new frequencies were successfully coordinated, giving free way for new radios as well.
Currently in typically 5 to 10 applicants submit bids for a tendered frequency. In the mean time the medium wave range became almost completely silent, finally its profile has changed: Radio Petőfi ceased to exist in this band fromand the applicants were not queuing for the medium wave range related private radio tenders.
These frequencies are basically favored by the elderly people in Hungary, and are completely unpopular with the new radios. To be able to operate as a national radio 77 felháborítóan hatékony anti agingonly the Hungarian Catholic Radio accepted this bandwhich is run by the Catholic Church ránctalanító szérum dm whose audience comes from mainly the elderly age group.
The Hungarian Radio uses some medium wave 77 felháborítóan hatékony anti aging on a separate network MR4 for its broadcasts targeting the national minorities and for its regional programs MR6. This situation is similar to the circumstances of the beginning of the s, when the commercial radios had already long been operating in the MHz band, while the national minority programs and the parliamentary broadcasts were transmitted still in the nearly extinct 70 MHz VHF range.
The medium wave transmissions of MR4 took over this role in when the dated Eastern VHF range was finally abandoned. One of the two national radios launched in was Radio Danubius, which had been among the most popular commercial radios before. The only change was that before this date the state-owned public service Hungarian Radio had benefited from its profit, while from it operated as a private radio.
This was a considerable loss for the Hungarian Radio, since one third of its revenue came from advertisements, mainly provided by Danubius, where the proportion of commercials in an hour could reach up to even 20 minutes . The other new station was really a newcomer in the ether.
The only problem around its application was that the name Radio Hungária and program style public service related cultural programs indicated in its bid with which it won the tender differed from the actual designation and program format it finally started with. Having obtained its license, it modified its name and program plan.
The two big national private 77 felháborítóan hatékony anti aging became the dominant actors of the radio market from this time on, instead of anti aging kézikönyv 4. kiadás old-fashioned public service channels. However, well-known and popular personalities in the radio business had existed also before in fact, the speakers were considered as widely known starts already in the early days of radio broadcasting.
The characters were usually attributed to a specific program or program type, manifesting together the profile of the radio. Finally the duo of Bochkor and Boros became the most featured speakers of the past decades, whose career started still at the Hungarian Radio. Since the termination of Radio Sláger they have been performing their morning show on Neo FM, which is receivable on the same frequencies.
This program is considered as an iconic symbol of such fun shows which are deprecated by intellectual circles, supplying topics nearly continuously for the tabloids. Partly due to this program, the notion of commercial radio style is identical to yellow journalism for many in Hungary, what also several other radios tried to copy in their morning shows.
Talk radios Commercial radios whose profile was else than pop music were launched later.
A milestone is the appearance of Info Radiowhich intends to adopt the minute news periods of the American news radios. Later politically committed commercial talk radios also appeared besides the neutral ones. Such an example is Klubrádió with a left view, providing public life related and political talk shows, or Radio Lánchíd representing a right-handed attitude.
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This latter one was launched with the contribution of experienced and known speakers and editors, who 77 felháborítóan hatékony anti aging the Hungarian Radio when it was reformed and transformed just before the foundation of Radio Lánchíd. Radio Mária, broadcasting Catholic talk programs, prayers and masses, began its operation in and has been continuously purchasing local transmitters and applying for new frequencies since then, featuring a network of 16 transmitters in Small networks Due to the lack of a complete national frequency network, the private entrepreneurs involved in radio business tried to seek for alternate solutions to access as many listeners as possible.
Although ORTT first did not support the establishment of networks, finally this remained the only option for the commercial radios to spread their business. On the one hand, networks developed which transmitted the programs of a central studio in Budapest including a four-hour local program block every day as specified 77 felháborítóan hatékony anti aging the Media Act; such examples are Radio Juventus and 77 felháborítóan hatékony anti agingor, on the other hand, franchise networks appeared whose stations represented a common style with identical names and play lists, but they were legally independent and their individual programs were edited separately in the respective local studios e.
Radio 1. The main reasons of organizing networks were to reduce the costs of program making in certain cases local information programs were made in a remote studio and to manage advertisements centrally. The news is mostly provided by some external agency e. Radio News Service for these radios. These stations are mostly operated by volunteers, covering their expenses from tenders. This is problematic from several aspects: on the one hand, these radios can be operated much cheaper than the commercial ones they do not have to pay frequency fees and they have more tender opportunities, etc.
However, with their high diversity in the contents and types of their programs, most of the stations operating with a micro community license could compensate the increasingly homogenous profile of commercial radios. In spite of all these, it is a remarkable result that about 70 micro community radios have been established until all over the country since the first stations of this kind were launched in There are, however, some radios intended for smaller social groups which broadcast on a commercial basis and not kine svájci anti aging tanulmány a community license.
This is the case of e.
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Radio C, which targets the gipsy minorities in Budapest, being the only radio platform in the country that delivers popular music and entertaining programs to the gipsy communities i. All this in an environment where the gypsies, the most numerous minorities in Hungary, are spread all over the country.
Currently neither the public service radio, nor any of the other stations broadcast programs for foreigners living in Hungary, foreign tourists or those who do not speak Hungarian. Music formats. Jazz radios and private stations broadcasting classical music have also appeared relatively late and their role is marginal.