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Articulation The mechanism governing coordination between different levels of collective wage setting was changed in and by two legislative reforms implemented by the Socialist Party PSOE and the Popular Party PPrespectively. Beforewages agreed at the sectoral level prevailed over wages agreed at company level. As such, lower bargaining levels could only improve wage standards agreed at higher levels.

However, the law allowed social partners to establish — whether at the cross-sectoral or sectoral level regional and national — another collective bargaining structure that could continue to prioritise the sectoral level.

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It gave priority to company-level agreements over sectoral multiemployer agreements whether national, regional or provincial in matters such as basic pay and pay supplements even if the social partners decide to establish an alternative collective bargaining structure. Different articulation models of the components of wage setting were observed in the years before the new regulation came into effect.

Most of them were multi-tier models.

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In some anti aging csoport bcn, such as the graphic arts, the sectoral level established the structure of the wage system and the lower levels regional and provincial sectoral level or company level established the amount of the wages. In other sectors, such as the manufacturing of gypsum or the chemical sector, the sectoral level exclusively regulated some aspects of the wage level mostly minimum wages linked to professional groups or categoriesallowing the company level to regulate other wage elements extra payments, etc.

These models still exist. Timing of the bargaining rounds In Spain, a general pattern with regard to the month or quarter of the year when collective bargaining takes place is not observed. These agreements establish guidelines on pay, among other aspects, which are not legally mandatory, but the social partners commit themselves to following at different levels. It includes guidelines on salary issues, negotiated flexibility and conflict resolution.

Extension mechanisms In Spain, once they are signed, collective agreements are extended to all workers irrespective of whether or not they are affiliated to the unions that signed the collective agreement.


The same applies to companies. This has not changed in recent years. In Spain, collective agreements can be extended by legislation, according to article This is in order to avoid the damages to workers and the companies from the impossibility of subscribing a collective agreement of those contained in the 3rd Title of the Workers Statute due to the absence of parties legitimised to negotiate it.

In this case, the legitimacy to request the extension relies on the social partners, and the competent institution to resolve the issue is the Ministry of Employment and Social Security in case of a leucin az öregedés ellen level collective agreement or collective agreement affecting more than one Autonomous Community or the Autonomous Community.

It is a measure set by the legal framework for certain cases, and not voluntarily by all sides. However, anti aging csoport bcn previously mentioned labour reform has introduced the possibility for companies to opt out from higher collective agreements anti aging csoport bcn of economic, anti aging csoport bcn or organisational circumstances. Therefore companies, under some conditions, can decide on the collective agreement extension.

According to this regulation, multiemployer collective agreements had to establish the conditions and procedures allowing companies to derogate from collective bargaining. Inthe socialist government allowed the modification of wages stipulated in multiemployer collective agreements by means of negotiations within the company.

If they do not achieve an agreement, they will have to apply for mediation procedures established in the multiemployer collective agreements. It allows companies to opt out of collective bargaining if the enterprise records a drop in its revenues or sales during six consecutive months.

Moreover, the law enables employers to anti aging csoport bcn modify wages on technical or organisational grounds. Its aim was to protect current working conditions even if an employer refused to anti aging csoport bcn a new agreement. More specifically, it states that from 7 Julyall expired and unrenewed collective agreements made before 7 July will become invalid.

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Nevertheless, a recent Supreme Court rec. The Supreme Court has ratified the decision of the Courts of the Balearic Islands on the so-called ATESE case, in which the trade unions brought the company to court because of its decision to decrease wages once the collective agreement ceased to be in force one year after its completion. The Supreme Court has argued that working conditions agreed in a collective agreement have a contractual juridical status and must be applied even if the collective bargaining of reference has expired, thus annulling the reform of the ultra-activity principle.

With this decision, the Supreme Court has reoriented, in part, the legislation in force regarding the previous labour relations regulation, preventing the reform from unfolding all the effects.

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However, this decision highlights two important issues. Firstly, it leaves open the possibility of modifying working conditions using the procedure contained in article 41 of the Statute of Workers Rights, about substantial change in working conditions if economical, technical, organisational or productive causes are met. Secondly, this decision is not applicable to newly joined workers, because the expired collective agreement has never been applied to them.

Because anti aging csoport bcn this, other conditions could be applied to these workers, although new juridical problems could arise double pay scale and its prohibition according to the jurisprudence Source: article in Derecho News Ultimately, this decision has created a great degree of juridical uncertainty in the application of the new principle of expiry.

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According to article If negotiators decide to apply this possibility, then peace clauses appear. In general terms, collective agreements in Spain can include two main types of clauses: normative clauses and compulsory clauses.

Normative clauses refer to the basic contents of the agreement that is, salary regime, working time, professional classification, etc. Thus, peace clauses are compulsory clauses. Peace clauses imply for the signatory parties a temporary commitment to not making use of the right to strike during the validity of the agreement. Other aspects of working life addressed in collective agreements Generally speaking, collective agreements in Spain are poor in terms of the issues included.

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This is because of the detailed regulation of working conditions in the Workers Statute, that reduces the spaces for collective bargaining. In most cases, the main issues discussed in collective bargaining are wages and working time. The crisis has negatively affected the inclusion of working life issues in collective bargaining. Even though a trend towards enlarging the number of issues discussed including clauses related to training, working time flexibility, telework, etc.

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According to these regulations, there are two types of industrial actions: the strike la huelga and the lockout cierre patronal.

The strike is a collective action by workers consisting of the agreed withdrawal of anti aging csoport bcn labour. It is normally directed against the employer to back up the collective bargaining process and force compliance with statutory or contractual regulations.

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On the other hand, the lockout is an industrial action taken unilaterally by the employer and consisting of the total or partial cessation of production activity. The premise may be the physical closure of the company or some other action taken to prevent the performance of work.

To protect the right to strike, Spanish legislation allows lockouts only when persons or property are in danger, as a policing measure. However, it is a measure rarely put into practice by employers.

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The decision to call a strike must be communicated to the company and to the labour authority five days before it is to be held.

For public companies, the notification period is 10 days. Finally, a strike committee made up of a maximum of 12 members must also be constituted. During the strike, labour contracts become suspended.

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The right to strike is an individual right that is collectively exercised.

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